Welcome

Posted October 23, 2009 by gram11
Categories: 1

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present perfect

Posted September 18, 2009 by gram11
Categories: Uncategorized

We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.

I have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?

Past

Present

future





The situation started in the past.

It continues up to now.

(It will probably continue into the future.)

Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.

For example:

Q) Where’s Jane?
A) She has gone out. She should be back in an hour.

*We form the present perfect simple by using the auxiliary verb have/has and the -ed form of the regular verb (the past participle) irregular verb forms have to be learned:

Statements
+

Statements

Questions

Short answer
+

Short answer

I’ve worked. I haven’t worked. Have I worked? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.
He’s worked. He hasn’t worked. Has he worked? Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t.
She’s worked. She hasn’t worked. Has she worked? Yes, she has. No, she hasn’t.
It’s worked. It hasn’t worked. Has it worked? Yes, it has. No, it hasn’t.
You’ve worked. You haven’t worked. Have you worked? Yes you have. No, you haven’t.
We’ve worked. We haven’t worked. Have we worked? Yes we have. No, we haven’t.
They’ve worked. They haven’t worked. Have they worked? Yes they have. No, they haven’t.

*The present perfect simple is used to discuss events that have just been completed at the moment of speaking.

For example:

Q) Have you done your homework?”
A) “Yes, I’ve just finished it.”

*It is often used to suggest that a past action still has an effect upon something happening in the present.

For example:

“The pound has fallen against the dollar.”

*It is also used to discuss unfinished time.

For example:

Q) Have you done your homework today?
A) No, I haven’t done it yet.

Note – You are talking about today and today isn’t finished, so you may do your homework later!

Q) Have you ever been to England?”
A) “Yes I have.”

Note – You are talking about something that has happened in your life and your life isn’t finished!

*You can also use the present perfect to discuss something from the past but you don’t want to say exactly when.

For example:

Q) “Are you learning any languages?”
A) “Yes, I’ve begun to learn English.”

*This tense is often used to discuss events that have been happening over a period of time, but aren’t finished yet.

For example:

Q) “How long have you studied English for?”
A) “I‘ve studied English for 2 years now.”

*However it is better (grammatically speaking) to use the Present Perfect Continuous to express yourself in this way.

For example:

Q) “How long have you been studying English for?” A) “I‘ve been studying English for 2 years now.”

Note it is always for a length of time and since a point in time.

present continuous

Posted September 18, 2009 by gram11
Categories: Uncategorized

Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb “to be” in the simple present tense – some of them are general, some of them are now:

The structure of the present continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + main verb

Be

base + ing

Look at these examples:

subject auxiliary verb main verb

+

I Am speaking to you.

+

You Are reading this.

She Is not staying in London.

We Are not playing football.

?

Is He watching TV?

?

Are They waiting for John?

For example:

Q) “What are you doing?” A) “I’m building a website.” …the pages are turning

….the candle is burning

….the numbers are spinning.

…the numbers are spinning

a)Present continuous tense for action happening now

I am eating my lunch.

past

Present

future


The action is happening now.

b) For action happening around now

*We also use the present continuous tense to talk about things that are happening around now but are temporary.

The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual.

John is going out with Mary.

Past

Present

Future








The action is happening around now.

For example:
  • Muriel is learning to drive.
  • I am living with my sister until I find an apartment

*For habitual actions (usually negative).

For example:

“He’s always cleaning his car.”

Present continuous tense for the future

We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future – if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. “Future words” include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.

I am taking my exam next month.

past

Present

future

!!!


A firm plan or programme exists now.

The action is in the future.

For example:

  • We‘re eating in a restaurant tonight. We’ve already booked the table..
  • They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They‘re not working.
  • When are you starting your new job?

Note:-

The present continuous is usually used with doing verbs (verbs of action) not with verbs of state. The following verbs are not used in the continuous form:-

Conditions: belong, cost, need, own, seem

Feelings: like, love, hate, want, wish

Beliefs: believe, feel, know, mean, remember, think, understand

simple present

Posted September 18, 2009 by gram11
Categories: Uncategorized

Simple present

We use simple present to talk about things in general. We use it to say something that happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking.

  • We add (s) at the end of the verbs when the subject is singular .but after plural subject we do not add (s) after the verb
  • *singular pronouns are (he, she, it)
  • *plural pronouns are (we, they, you)
  • *(I)is singular pronoun but we use it with verbs like plural.

.

For example:
  • The eath goes around the sun.
  • Nurses take care of patients in hospitals.
  • I play tennis
  • She does not play tennis.
  • Does he play tennis?
  • The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
  • The train does not leave at 9 AM.
  • When does the train usually leave?
  • She always forgets her purse.
  • He never forgets his wallet.
  • Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
  • Does the Sun circle the Earth?

For Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.

For example:
  • Cats like milk.
  • Birds do not like milk.
  • Do pigs like milk?
  • California is in America.
  • California is not in the United Kingdom.
  • Windows are made of glass.
  • Windows are not made of wood.
  • New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue

.

For Scheduled Events in the Near Future

Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

For example:
  • The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
  • The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
  • When do we board the plane?
  • The party starts at 8 o’clock.
  • When does class begin tomorrow?

For Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.

For example:
  • I am here now.
  • She is not here now.
  • He needs help right now.
  • He does not need help now.
  • He has his passport in his hand.
  • Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

For example:
  • You only speak English.
  • Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

For example:
  • Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
  • Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive

There are three important exceptions:

  1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
  2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
  3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.

Look at these examples with the main verb like:

Subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I, you, we, they like coffee.
He, she, it likes coffee.

I, you, we, they Do not like coffee.
He, she, it Does not like coffee.

?

Do I, you, we, they like coffee?
Does he, she, it like coffee?

Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary

:

subject main verb

+

I Am French.
You, we, they Are French.
He, she, it Is French.

There are three important exceptions:

  1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
  2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
  3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.

Look at these examples with the main verb like:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I, you, we, they like coffee.
He, she, it likes coffee.

I, you, we, they Do not like coffee.
He, she, it Does not like coffee.

?

Do I, you, we, they like coffee?
Does he, she, it like coffee?

Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:

subject main verb

+

I Am French.
You, we, they Are French.
He, she, it Is French.

I Am not old.
You, we, they Are not old.
He, she, it Is not old.

?

Am I late?
Are you, we, they late?
Is he, she, it late?

The situation is now.